Insulin and the Parkinsonian Brain

According to the American Diabetes Association, about 9.3% of the American population has diabetes, with the number rising every year. It is among the top 10 causes of death in the US. Diabetes has a high impact on our society; it’s not surprising that insulin is a household term. Type-2 diabetes is caused by a diet high in fat and sugar and is the result of the body developing a resistance to insulin signaling. Insulin resistance not only creates the abnormal blood glucose levels associated with diabetes, but also impairs central nervous system signaling. Insulin signaling in the dopaminergic (DA) neurons that degenerate in Parkinson’s disease can be inhibited by chronic inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS), both of which are elevated in Parkinson’s disease. Conversely, insulin signaling increases dopamine reuptake from the synapse, prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and related ROS production, reduces tau protein accumulation in Lewy bodies, which are characteristic of Parkinson’s, and helps prevent apoptosis by inhibiting the caspase cascade.

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Inaugural celebrations remind Egypt of a deep-rooted problem

EGYPT-POLITICS-UNREST-REFERENDUM-FILES “No to harassment”

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