1,5-Benzodiazepine Educational Synthesis – Conclusion

Good afternoon, everyone!

After nearly eight weeks of literature research and experimenting in the lab, I have finalized my initial procedure for the synthesis of 2,2,4-trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine using ortho-Phenlenediamine, an excess of acetone, and sulfamic acid catalyst.  I made several alterations to the skeletal procedure by Fletcher given to me by Prof. Lashley, including an increase in reaction time (from 30 minutes to 60 minutes), an increase in catalyst (from 10% molar to 20% molar), the use of reagent-grade acetone (instead of solvent-grade), the use of magnesium sulfate drying agent (instead of sodium sulfate drying agent), the use of a drying column to eliminate atmospheric water from entering the system, and limiting the extraction solvent to 30 mL of DCM (instead of 50 mL).  With these changes, the reaction yields more pure product, in a timely fashion.

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The problem of the Han-minority education achievement gap can be explained in three different ways. The ethnic minority groups are also economically disadvantaged and are largely located in rural parts of China. Thus the education achievement gap between Han students and ethnic minority students is also the education achievement gap between city students and rural countryside students. There are also the cultural conflicts between the Han and the ethnic minority groups. As this conflict is largely politicized, the voices of some minority groups are suppressed.

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Continued Observations in Tibet


During my interview with the Tibetan officials, I was able to acquire their work reports that are not open to the general public. Combined with my interviews with students and officials, I was able to gain a more holistic understanding of government’s projects in Tibet.

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