Forest Recovery after Release from White-tailed Deer Browsing

White-tailed deer populations in the United States are currently skyrocketing, especially on the East Coast. Human activity has eliminated the apex predators in most of these areas and, combined with the decrease in hunting in the last few decades, has released white-tailed deer populations from most constraints. Researchers have seen multiple issues arise along with this increase in population, including an increase in tick-borne diseases and deer-related car accidents (Russel et al. 2001; DeNicola and Williams 2008). In addition to these problems, a high deer population has been connected to a decrease in population densities of deer-favored plants, and certain floral populations have even been eaten to extinction. Williamsburg is one such location where deer populations have been increasing as plant populations decrease. The College Woods has seen a marked decrease in plant density over the past decade, and some of the rarer plants have disappeared entirely (Cyrus 2016).

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Diyne Addition Reactions Involving Thiols and Amines

To fully utilize proteins to treat diseases, often bioconjugations involving the to the protein need to be synthesized to increase activity or delivery. Bioconjugate are covalently linked molecules, where at least one of the molecules naturally is a biomacromolecule (Protein, DNA, carbohydrate or lipid). Bioconjugates are important as they allow the linkage of multiple molecules which have different properties. For example, a targeting agent and a drug can be conjugated together, which could allow for targeted dispersal of drug without the drug attacking healthy regions of the body. Bioconjugates also are much harder to accumulate resistance to than smaller drug molecules, which means that bioconjugates could be used to treat drug resistant bacteria that are currently not treatable with modern medicine.

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Living Shorelines

The living shoreline is an emerging coastal management technique being employed by landowners is Southeastern Virginia. In the past, landowners and land managers have turned to armoring shorelines in order to protect land against erosion and sea level rise. These armored shorelines, comprised of bulkheads and rocky barriers, solve the problem of erosion by absorbing wave energy. However, this method also disrupts local habitats, providing for habitat fragmentation, prevention of certain migratory patterns associated with sea level rise, and a decrease in the abundance and richness of marine taxa. The living shoreline is an alternative to this method, in which landowners attempt to mimic the functionality of natural fringe marshes. These marshes seek to provide similar ecosystem functions to natural marshes; lowering the rate of soil and sediment erosion, acting as carbon sinks, buffering against wave energy, and providing a nursing habitat for many local species. There exists a developing data set on the impacts of living shorelines on the abundance and behaviors of fish and crustaceans, but a critical gap remains in the way of wading birds and turtle species. To examine the widespread viability and impact of these shorelines on birds and turtles would be to narrow this gap. In some ways, living shorelines may even prove more attractive to some bird species as certain artificial features provide better refuge for prey, thus heightening the number of prey present and attracting more birds. In any case, the specific effect these artificial shorelines have on birds and turtles is not known at this time, and inspecting the ramifications of this management technique on local species is vitally important to assessing the use of the living shoreline across the country. Researchers will survey 26 total sites, 13 natural marshes and 13 living shorelines, both ‘urban’ (i.e. around the Norfolk area) and ‘rural’ (i.e. around the Gloucester area), paired by similar wave action. Then, by using both GoPro cameras and acoustic monitors, the richness, abundance, and foraging behavior data sets of local taxa of marsh birds and turtles will be collected in order to determine data discrepancies between natural and artificial marsh sites.

Black Students’ Perceptions of their Self-Determination in School- Abstract

Self-determination skills are met when three requirements are met: the student must feel autonomy, competence, and belongingness. In the classroom, self-determination skills are partially dependent upon teacher focus on the student inside the classroom and the empowerment they give them to act. Self-determination skills will boost the ability for African Americans to become casual agents. Most research connecting casual agency theory and self-determination skills have focused on children with disabilities. The project I will work on with Dr. Parker will seek to understand the relationship between the causal agent theory and self-determination skills in African American students without disabilities. Research focusing on the success of African American students has focused on personal agency and environmental factors impacting their capabilities, but not enough research focuses on the self-determination skills and in understanding the internal strengths African American youth might have. It is important to understand these internal strengths in African American youth because the education system was not created for African Americans (Lozenski, 2017).  Therefore, the question we intend to answer is whether or not empowering African American students’ belief in their self-determination skills can lead to them becoming better casual agents for their own personal success. From the project, we hope to provide new knowledge on the link between self-determination skills and casual agency with students beyond those with disabilities. The goal of the project is to inform the public on how the education system can be improved to aid our African American youth in becoming empowered in the classroom setting so that they can be successful in academics, activities, and future aspirations.

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Implicit Stereotypes Toward Body Type and Cognitive Responses to Food

Implicit cognitive biases or stereotypes toward certain body types have been found to affect individual food choice (McFerran, Dahl, Fitzsimons, & Morales, 2009). Additionally, it is becoming increasingly common for prominent influencers to encourage the consumption of certain foods or dietary practices through Instagram and other forms of social media. The goal of this study is to take advantage of this trend to understand how stereotypes about a social media influencer affect people’s perception of foods.

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