With the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, came new requirements for schools such as an annual testing requirement with particular standards, exams, cut scores, and people to score the exams (p50). These requirements are then met through state education agencies who have obligations to appease to education unions, businesses, and the federal government. The members of these agencies typically have no experience writing or grading tests leading to difficulties (p50). Aside from the exams themselves, implementing supplementary programs to improve test scores created another hurdle for agencies on top of all other challenges. Due to the demands of NCLB, states complained about the lack of resources needed to implement the demands (p53). Agencies sought assistance from test contractors who at times computed the scores of subgroups based on race and ethnicity inaccurately (p51). Contractors also made errors grading exams increasing the amount of time to compute final test scores (p51). In response to concerns, the Bush administration gave states credit for anticipated progress rather than actual progress while failing to meet the demands of the states (p54). From 2007-2009, NCLB had failed to have been reauthorized (p61). When reauthorized in 2009 under the Obama administration the momentum for change from the Bush administration was not present and as states argued for more funding, members of the administration claimed NCLB was adequately funded with a 43% increase from when President Obama assumed office (p62). President Obama’s budget requests did not reach what was needed for NCLB according to certain state budgets (p62). Nine school districts filed a lawsuit against NCLB; however, it resulted in a split decision (p64). This background information displays the reasoning for concerns over a lack of funding for government agencies. This study will provide evidence to defend and refute claims of there being too little funding and there being enough funding for education policies to be implemented.

Source: Source: Collision Course: Federal Education Policy Meets State and Local Realities (CQ Press, 2011)